Chapters: Urdu, Indus River, State Emblem of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Star and Crescent, Snow Leopard, Fatima Jinnah, Markhor, Qaum? Tar?na, Flag of Pakistan, Choudhary Rahmat Ali, Cedrus Deodara, Lahore Resolution, Chukar Partridge, Faisal Mosque, Pakistan Monument, Minar-E-Pakistan, Mangifera Indica, Bab-E-Pakistan, Jasminum Officinale, Tuzk. Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 165. Not illustrated. Free updates online. Purchase includes a free trial membership in the publisher’s book club where you can select from more than a million books without charge. Excerpt: Urdu – Etymologically, Urdu is a Turkish word which means “Army”. There are different theories that have been proposed about the emergence of the Urdu language, but they all stand close and similar. The most prominent and established theory suggests that Urdu developed after the Muslim invasion of the Indian subcontinent by Persian and Turkic dynasties from the 11th century onwards. For the first time Sultan Mahmud, the greatest ruler of the Ghaznavid empire, conquered Punjab in early 11th century. Later on, the Ghurids invaded the northern Indian subcontinent in the 12th century who were then followed by the Delhi Sultanate. Muslim armies comprised of soldiers of different origins and elasticities who spoke different languages. Interaction among these soldiers and with the locals led to the development of a new language, mutually comprehensible by all. Urdu, therefore, developed as a hybrid version of Hindustani language which borrowed extensively its vocabulary from Arabic, Persian, and Turkish languages. Later on, during the Mughal Empire, the development of Urdu was further strengthened and started to emerge as a new language. Under the reign of Shah Jahan, the term Urdu-i Mualla or Urdu-i Badshahi was employed to designate the language of Shahjahanabad. Urdu scholars and poets then coined the term Rekhta (meaning scattered in Persian) to designate the Urdu lang…More: https://booksllc.net/?id=32231
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